“Nanocellulose” have captivated the topical sphere of sturdily escalating market for sustainable materials. The review focuses on the comprehensive understanding of the distinct surface chemistry and functionalities pertaining to the renovation of macro-cellulose at nanodimensional scale to provide an intuition of their processing-structure-function prospective. The abundant availability, cost effectiveness and diverse properties associated with plant-based resources have great economical perspective for developing sustainable cellulose nanomaterials. Hence, emphasis has been given on nanocellulose types obtained from plant-based sources. An overarching goal is to provide the recent advancement in the preparation routes of nanocellulose. Considering the excellent shear thinning/thixotropic/gel-like behavior, the review provids an assemblage of publications specifically dealing with its application as rheology modifier with emphasis on its use as bioink for 3D bioprinting for various biomedical applications. Altogether, this review has been oriented in a way to collocate a collective data starting from the historical perspective of cellulose discovery to modern cellulosic chemistry and its renovation as nanocellulose with recent technological hype for broad spanning applications.