Temperature and Humidity PID Controller for a Bioprinter Atmospheric Enclosure System

Bioprinting is a complex process, highly dependent on bioink properties (materials and cells)
and environmental conditions (mainly temperature, humidity and CO2 concentration) during the
bioprinting process. To guarantee proper cellular viability and an accurate geometry, it is mandatory
to control all these factors. Despite internal factors, such as printing pressures, temperatures or speeds,
being well-controlled in actual bioprinters, there is a lack in the controlling of external parameters,
such as room temperature or humidity. In this sense, the objective of this work is to control the
temperature and humidity of a new, atmospheric enclosure system for bioprinting. The control has
been carried out with a decoupled proportional integral derivative (PID) controller that was designed,
simulated and experimentally tested in order to ensure the proper operation of all its components.
Finally, the PID controller can stabilize the atmospheric enclosure system temperature in 311 s and the
humidity in 65 s, with an average error of 1.89% and 1.30%, respectively. In this sense, the proposed
atmospheric enclosure system can reach and maintain the proper temperature and humidity values
during post-printing and provide a pre-incubation environment that promotes stability, integrity and
cell viability of the 3D bioprinted structures.

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