Bioink Development

Developing next generation biomaterials

Bioink Development

Develop and characterize the next generation biomaterials


Bioinks are materials used to generate 3D tissue constructs using bioprinters. A bioink can be any natural or synthetic polymer selected for its biocompatible components and favorable rheological properties. These characteristics temporarily or permanently support living cells to facilitate their adhesion, proliferation and differentiation during maturation.

CELLINK offers a wide range of bioinks with optimized formulations that ensure the viability of cells before, during and after the bioprinting process.

Supporting viability and proliferation

It is critical that the cells remain viable when blended within the bioinks during and after the printing process. An ideal bioink provides binding sites for cells while promoting their own extracellular matrix (ECM) production and ultimately help in generation of a functional tissue.

Finetuning the viscoelastic properties

Besides excellent bioactive properties, the second most important aspect in bioinks development is printability to ensure that the ink can be extruded through a printing nozzle or needle into filaments while maintaining the shape fidelity and hierarchical deposition of the printed cells in three-dimensional (3D) space. Ideal rheological properties depend on the method used for generating 3D constructs: For example, extrusion-based bioprinting required more gel-like bioink whereas droplet-based bioprinting can be achieved with more liquid-like bioinks. Characterization of the rheological properties is typically performed using a temperature-controlled rheometer. Eventually, new formulations need to be tested using a 3D bioprinter such as the BIO X or the BIO X6.

The importance of crosslinking

The process of crosslinking results in a shift from a rather viscous printable material to a more elastic material that provides and maintains structural rigidity. Crosslinking is commonly done by self-assembly, thermal gelation, UV light induction, or by adding an ionic solution. Our bioprinters such as the BIO X come with a variety of different modules to facilitate crosslinking in a rapid and controlled manner.

Related publications

Optimization of cell-laden bioinks for 3D bioprinting and efficient infection with influenza A virus

Author(s): Berg, J., Hiller, T., Kissner, M. S., Qazi, T. H., Duda, G. N., Hocke, A. C., … & Kurreck, J. (2018).

Technische Universität Berlin

Characterization and printability of Sodium alginate -Gelatin hydrogel for bioprinting NSCLC co-culture

Author(s): Arindam Mondal, Aragaw Gebeyehu, Mariza Miranda, Divya Bahadur, Nilkumar Patel, Subhramanian Ramakrishnan, Arun K. Rishi & Mandip Singh

Florida A&M University

Polypeptide templating for designer hierarchical materials

Author(s): Hui Sun & Benedetto Marelli

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Related products


The most user-friendly bioprinter in the world thanks to its open system, intelligent and interchangeable printheads. Assists in developing complex tissue constructs, testing new drug compounds and streamline workflows in a range of application areas.

A pneumatic-based extrusion bioprinter with dual printheads and a UV LED curing system. It’s a cost-effective unit that enables innovators to enter the 3D bioprinting field and print living tissues at ease.




The BIO X6 is the only true benchtop bioprinter to combine six printheads with our patented Clean Chamber Technology in a compact package, taking up a 78.1-cm footprint in your lab.

Conductive_Cell Viability

SUPPORT series

Our SUPPORT Series includes bioinks designed to support constructs and demonstrations. These bioinks incorporate thickeners, sacrificial materials and bright colors to make tailored architectures and educational projects easier than ever.