Collagen 2A Type B Induction after 3D Bioprinting Chondrocytes In Situ into Osteoarthritic Chondral Tibial Lesion

Cartilage has a limited ability to heal due to the limited capacity of mature chondrocytes to proliferate, immobility of chondrocytes and absence of a vascular network. Furthermore, patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) suffer a continuous cartilage degradation process.1,2 Articular joint injuries and articular cartilage degeneration are associated with pain, disability, and huge socioeconomic costs.3 Microfracturing, implantation of osteochondral auto- and allografts, and autologous chondrocyte implantation, have previously been developed to repair and reconstruct damaged cartilage.46 Although local chondral lesions can potentially be treated successfully with, for example, cell therapies, large defects, and OA lesions remain immense challenges. Scaffold materials for tissue engineering in combination with cells have been proposed as an approach to repair bone and cartilage defects.7 Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting is an additional manufacturing technique by which the cells and supporting biomaterial can be deposited layer-by-layer in an exact position to mimic the tissue architecture and allow the construction of specific implantation tailored to the patient based on medical imaging data.8


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